Rural Librarian

Saturday, March 28, 2015

Library Hero, Administrative Villain: J. Edgar Hoover

Most people remember J. Edgar Hoover as the first head of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) who kept extensive information and files on people whom he disliked, distrusted, or who caught his attention in negative way. But did you know that before J. Edgar Hoover became a top law enforcer he was an information sciences professional, a librarian?

J. Edgar, the Movie

As a graduate student in the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, a professor who was introducing themselves and pitching their class talked about the film "J. Edgar." Released in 2011, this movie starring Leonardo DiCaprio as J. Edgar Hoover showed the evolution of this controversial man from humble librarian to head of the FBI.

J. Edgar the Cataloger

John Edgar Hoover (1895-1972) was born and spent his entire life in Washington, D.C. His first job at age 18 was as a messenger at the Library of Congress (LOC). Hoover also worked in the cataloging department. Later in 1951, Hoover wrote in a letter, “[T]his job …trained me in the value of collating material. It gave me an excellent foundation for my work in the FBI where it has been necessary to collate information and evidence.” In excellent homage to Hoover and the Library of Congress there were some scenes for the film "J. Edgar" shot on location in the LOC.

J. Edgar Hoover, 1940 Census Clues

Just for fun, I looked at the 1940 United States Census to see if there was any information of interest there that would give a snapshot into who he was. According to that document, J. Edgar Hoover lived at 413 Seward Square in Washington D.C., age 45, single, and living alone. Perhaps the most interesting fact on this page is:

"Weeks Worked in 1939: 52"

"Hours Worked Week Prior to Census: 99"

I did a researcher double-take when I saw the number of hours that Hoover says he worked in the previous week. I went and looked at the handwritten document to find that '105' was recorded, crossed out, and replaced with '99.' So J. Edgar didn't take vacations and if he worked seven days a week he worked fourteen hours per day. Hoover was a workaholic. It is also interesting to note that J. Edgar Hoover lived in the same house his entire life.

Empire of Information Evil

If Hoover had remained at the Library of Congress the world might be a very different place. While Hoover excelled at collecting, codifying, and storing data, he used his information skills for evil. Hoover was a petty, malicious, controlling person with an unhealthy dose of paranoia, as many people may be who have dark secrets to hide. The full legacy of J. Edgar Hoover may never fully be known as his faithful secretary, Helen Gandy (pictured below), spent weeks destroying Hoover's personal files that he is said to have used to blackmail politicians, police, players, and Presidents.

Sunday, March 22, 2015

Famous Librarian Writers

The famous folks below were at one time librarians but became famous for other reasons. While Beverly Cleary and Andre Norton were professional librarians, others, (such as Proust) dabbled in the library sciences.

Ben Franklin (1706-1790)

Author, printer, inventor, diplomat, postmaster, scientist, and activist, it's hard to pigeon-hole Franklin into one category.In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and at the age of 21, Franklin started a subscription-based library where members pooled cash to buy and read books.

Photo: Portrait of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph-Siffrein Duplessis (1725-1802), c. 1785, oil on canvas, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.

Madeline L'Engle (1918-2007)

American writer Madeline L'Engle is best known for writing the classic young adult novel "A Wrinkle in Time" (1962), she also served as a volunteer librarian at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York City in 1965.

Photo: Courtesy of Square Fish Books.

Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)

In 1913, painter, writer, and artist Marcel Duchamp took a position as librarian at the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève in Paris, France, where he also studied physics and math.

Photo: Marcel Duchamp playing chess (photo by Kay Bell Reynal, 1952)

Beverly Cleary (1916-)

Children's book writer Beverly Cleary graduated from the University of Washington in Seattle with a library degree in 1939. Some of Cleary's books include "Beezus and Ramona"(1955), "Ribsy" (1964), and "The Mouse and the Motorcycle" (1965).

Photo: Photo of Beverly Cleary, State Library Photograph Collection, 1851-1990, Washington State Archives, Digital Archives, http://www.digitalarchives.wa.gov

Hypatia (b. circa 350-370 - 415)

"There was a woman at Alexandria named Hypatia, daughter of the philosopher Theon, who made such attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass all the philosophers of her own time. Having succeeded to the school of Plato and Plotinus, she explained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, many of whom came from a distance to receive her instructions. On account of the self-possession and ease of manner which she had acquired in consequence of the cultivation of her mind, she not infrequently appeared in public in the presence of the magistrates. Neither did she feel abashed in going to an assembly of men. For all men on account of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more." ~ Socrates Scholasticus, from his Ecclesiastical History

Photo: Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. An actress, possibly Mary Anderson, in the title role of the play Hypatia, circa 1900.

Lao Tsu (b. circa 571 BCE - Zhou Dynasty)

This philosopher and poet of ancient China, Lao Tsu is said to have held a position as scholar in the Imperial Archives. The most famous work most often attributed to Lao Tsu is the Tao Te Ching.

Photo: Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. A painting of the Daode Tianzun ('the Heavenly Lord of Dao and its Virtue'), the deified Laozi, one of the supreme divinities of Daoism.

Andre Norton (1912-2005)

Born Alice Mary Norton in Cleveland, Ohio, she went on to become a highly successful science fiction writer. But before she became a famous, award-winning author, she worked in the Cleveland Library System for 18 years. During World War II and from 1940-41, Norton worked as a special librarian in the cataloging department of the Library of Congress.

Photo: Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. Cover of Voodoo Planet by Andrew North, artist Ed Valigursky; half of Ace Double #D-345 (1959)

Marcel Proust (1871-1922)

While many consider French writer Marcel Proust to be one of the greatest authors in the history of literature, he was a terrible librarian. An asthma sufferer who appears to have been coddled by wealthy parents, Proust secured a volunteer position at the Bibliotheque Mazarine in 1896 and then went on sick leave without ever having worked a day. Oh, Proust. How adorable, frustrating, and funny.

Photo: Courtesy Wikipedia Commons. Marcel Proust in 1900.

It is interesting and strange to me that there are not more famous writers who were once librarians as librarians may have access to the best books and resources. Great readers make great writers, but not all librarians, it seems, are great writers. Alas.

Monday, March 2, 2015

How is the Pioneer Memorial Public Library Funded?

The Pioneer Memorial Public Library has been an official public library since 1985 when it was started by a few local residents passionate about books, reading, and literacy. This year we celebrate 30 years of providing high-quality library services in Harman, West Virginia. Since the partial closing of Harman School many local residents have expressed concern over the future and funding of the Pioneer Library. So, how is the Pioneer Library funded? Where does the money come from? As a public library, our funding and budget should be provided as part of the public record. After all, part of our funding comes from taxpayers therefore everyone should know about where the Pioneer Library money comes from and where it goes.

Public Funds

The Pioneer Library receives $7,500 per year from the Randolph County Commission as part of their commitment to libraries and literacy in our county. All five libraries in Randolph County receive the same amount from the County Commission every year. For the last several years, the Pioneer Library has received $10,000 from the Randolph County Board of Education. This is levy money that runs out in a year or two. We do not expect a levy to be reinstated at the end of this special funding.

The Pioneer Library receives approximately $11,834 per year from the West Virginia Library Commission in Charleston, WV. This is money that we receive from the WVLC that makes sure the Pioneer Library (and all state libraries that receive federal funding) are compliant with certain rules and regulations. For example, did you know that the library goes through an independent audit every year? This helps to keep the library fiscally responsible and honest. It is also law that we have an audit every year and the WVLC confirms that audit by receiving a copy of it every year. The money we receive annually from the WVLC is based on the US Census that is carried out every ten years. At last census count our service population is 2,323 people and we receive a certain amount of funding per capita based on that number. (That's about $5.09 per person.)

We also receive funding from fundraising. The Pioneer Library has its largest fundraiser annually at the Run For It in Tucker County. Every year, Team Pioneer brings home enough money to feel secure for another year. We also co-sponsor a chicken roast that same day at the Leaf Peepers Festival (with Tucker County Rotary) and also get funds from that event. We also receive donations from private individuals throughout the year who are committed to supporting the efforts of the Pioneer Library. But wait, there's more! We also sell used books on Amazon to raise funds and we get funds back from dedicated library users who have registered their Kroger card with the library as recipient of 5% cash back.

Employment

The Pioneer Library employs a director who works 30 hours per week and another part-time library worker. The total amount paid to two library workers is less than $20,000 per year. The entire budget of the Pioneer Memorial Public Library is slightly less than $35,000 per year. The remaining funds go to utilities, supplies, insurance, and books. The entire book buying budget for the year is about $2,000.

So, the Pioneer Library is not officially part of Harman School even though we are located on school grounds. We are also not part of the Randolph County Board of Education. The Pioneer Library is considered a nonprofit quasi-governmental organization with obligations to the Randolph County Commission (they approve and appoint our board members) and the West Virginia Library Commission. Both library workers are employees of the Pioneer Library and no other entity or organization.

Oversight

The Pioneer Memorial Public library has lots of oversight. The real bosses of the library are the patrons who use it regularly. We try to listen to suggestions and ideas that come from the people who use the library the most. As a Public Library we want to please the public. We are overseen by a five member Board of Trustees who meet six times a year to go over finances, events, trends, and other important issues that face the library. We are an affiliate library of the Upshur County Library who administers our payroll and hires an independent auditor for the library every year. We also have to complete an annual report that goes to the West Virginia Library Commission. This annual report is valuable in that it can reveal important circulation and collection development statistics. This is also part of a a required report that the WVLC is required to fulfill to maintain federal funding. There is a layered level of library relationships and monitoring that help to keep high standards for West Virginia libraries

In conclusion, the Pioneer Memorial Library is not an wealthy institution. We scrimp and save pennies to provide the very best for our small service population. We are also an official United States Public Library that is not part of the Randolph County Public Schools. We get lots of help and oversight from the West Virginia Library Commission and the Upshur County Public Library. Even if Harman School closed, the Pioneer Memorial Public Library would still exist and continue to function as such. So stop on by the Pioneer Memorial Public Library in beautiful downtown Harman, West Virginia, to check us out. How may we help you?

Thursday, February 5, 2015

Free E-Books at West Virginia Reads via the Public Library

Did you know that if you have a library card in West Virginia, you probably have access to free e-books for download to your Nook, Kindle, phone, or computer? Really? Really. It's easy and convenient and this article talks about how to get started today.

Got Your Library Card?

To get started, all you need is your Northern Library Network library card. It's yellow and plastic and this is your key to free e-books in West Virginia. This card covers all Randolph County libraries including the Pioneer Memorial Public Library in Harman, WV. To get to the West Virginia Reads site, you can start at the Pioneer Memorial Library's website front page. From there, look for the WV-READs logo to connect to the site. If you click on the highlighted text here, it will take you WV-Reads. To be able to see all of the books that are available, you will have to enter your library card number, the one after the bar code on your card.

Sign Into WV READS

The front page of WV READS looks like this:

Go to Advanced Search

When you go to sign in, please use your 12-digit library card number. When looking through the drop menu of libraries, please make sure you select Upshur County Library, as they are the service center to the Pioneer Library. The front page of WV READS is pleasing with a green and grey colored theme. If you look into the upper right corner of your screen, you will see an Advanced Search option. I really recommend that you start here for a couple of different reasons.

First, you will be able to see what e-books are available. While the front page of WV READS looks inviting and promising, full of hot best-selling books, the reality is that you might end up on a reserve list that will take you months to be able to read the book. The way e-books work is that the publisher sells you the right to use the e-book for a certain number of borrows or circulations. So, even if there are ten copies of the book that you want, they may all be checked out.

How To Download an E-Book

In the advanced search window towards the bottom of the screen you will see a choice for a box to check that says, 'Available Now.' My advice is to click that button before you comb over all the books in WV READS. If you are looking for immediate reading gratification, this is the route to take. From here you may narrow down your search by genre, age level, and subject. On the day that I wrote this I looked for e-books available now and found almost 14,000 titles -- that's a great selection size to be able to choose from.

To select a book, all you have to do is click on how you want to download. Do you want to download to your Nook or Kindle? Or do you want to read the book on your computer. These are all great options to have. You have 14 days to read these books on the device of your choice, and at the end of those 2 weeks the book magically disappears. No late returns, no overdue fines, and that's all pretty sweet.

WV-READs has best-selling books from Grisham, Patterson, and Baldacci but you may have to place a hold on the book. When a popular book is on WV-READS, many people want to read it but there are a limited number of copies and "reads" available. So, for example, I put "Gone Girl" By Gillian Flynn on hold by letting the cursor float over the image of the book and look for buttons, "Place Hold" or "View Sample". I chose Place Hold and found out that I am in "Holds position: #25 on 3 copies." There is no helpful "estimated time available" date. I have no idea how long it might take me to get my copy of "Gone Girl" but I will keep you updated.

Watch a Video About How to Access WV-READs

Still confused? WV-Reads can be confusing if you're new to the site. I made a screencast video that helps walk you through step-by-step to help you understand the whole online process. If you are still not sure how to log onto and use WV READS, no worries. Stop by anytime at the Pioneer Memorial Public Library in Harman, West Virginia, and we will be happy to show you hows to use this remarkable tool to have e-books ready to read at any time.

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

The Future of Wifi - E-Rate Expansion, White Spaces, and Public Places

If you are a rural librarian, you know that access to broadband Internet is a problem in mountainous, remote Appalachian communities. In the Dry Fork Valley region of Randolph County, WV, there is only one Internet provider creating a monopoly for this service. Additionally, the Internet infrastructure that exists is old and sometimes unreliable. While we have an Internet wifi at the Pioneer Library, patrons must obtain a randomly generated username and password from a librarian during business hours. After business hours, many patrons do not have access to the Internet. If you are a city dweller, can you imagine not being able to afford Internet? Can you imagine not being plugged into the wifi grid for more than 24 hours? Our mountainous terrain makes it difficult even for cellular phone connections in West Virginia. But there is good news on the horizon for technology in rural libraries, tribal libraries, and public schools in the USA.

Thank You Senator Rockefeller

West Virginia's own Senator Rockefeller, who retired last year, achieved many wonderful things for the Mountain State. One of them is the E-Rate federal program that reimburses libraries and schools for telephone, long distance, and Internet. This is a national program that enables small, under-served, and rural libraries and schools to have the very best technology connection to the rest of the world. As a last farewell to his adopted home state, Rockefeller pushed through a multi-billion dollar E-Rate expansion that will hopefully allow every library and public school in the USA to have a super-fast fiber Internet connection. Thank you, Senator Jay Rockefeller for your service to West Virginia and to the rest of the country. Want to read more about it? Check out this article from New America that explains the fine print.

TV Goes Digital Leaves Spaces

Remember when televisions "went digital?" TV owners had to either upgrade to a new television or buy a digital-conversion box. This shift of television to digital freed up a large range of bandwidth that exists with the current infrastructure, the hardware of the super information highway. A fellow techie mentioned a conspiracy theory that cable companies would not allow these freed-up frequencies/channels/bandwidths to be used to offer free Internet because it would bankrupt Internet providers. OK. That was the rumor I heard that sparked this little rabbit hole of research into a nook of technology that I knew almost nothing about. Still interested? It's about to get more interesting, or, at least, I think so. The freed up bandwidth is known as White Spaces.

Conspiracy Theory?

So, did Internet providers conspire to keep free wifi from the people? The short answer is, no. White spaces, as they currently exist have no antennae or towers to broadcast their signal. There is no public infrastructure for global wifi that exists...yet. Making this even more difficult is that current computers would have to be equipped with hardware and software that communicates with the signal put out by white spaces wifi.

White Spaces at WVU

Another aspect of white spaces that is of interest: the first pilot campus-wide use of white spaces is happening at West Virginia University in Morgantown, WV. Here is a great quote from WVU’s chief information officer John Campbell, "Broadband in this state is a huge challenge. We’re very rural and very mountainous. Between the terrain and the weather, it’s hard on infrastructure.” So, even in West Virginia's larger cities, reliable and fast Internet is a problem. About a year ago, WVU started using white spaces as an infrastructure for a campus-wide wifi that unites three campus via this old spectrum that used to be occupied by television. (Here is a great article about White Spaces at WVU from Network World. It's also where I pulled the quote from the WVU PR rep.)

How Do White Spaces Work?

White spaces. Old tv frequencies. New Uses. Potential for super wifi? OK, here's the part I'm fuzzy on. I am an information scientist but not a computer scientist. If you want the library technology geek details, I recommend this article from Information Age by Kane Fulton way back in March 2013.

Who owns the white spaces? Technically, they are still owned by the television networks who ruled them. The Federal Communications Committee has ultimate power of these white spaces and may force cable companies to auction them off when the time comes. Think of this as auctioning off swamp land that needs to be drained before it can be developed. According to a tech source whom will remain anonymous, white spaces are generating a lot more attention from Internet Service Providers than the FCC had predicted. The auctioning off of white spaces will be a multi-billion dollar affair no doubt ruled by AT&T, Cellular One, and Sprint, the usual ISP and cell phone suspects. So what will the FCC do with the billions that stand to make in auctioning off white spaces? Only time will tell. But wouldn't it be great if the Federal communications Commission could invest it in future E-Rate programs so that underserved and rural libraries and schools will be ensured free technology for years to come? It is most certainly what Senator Jay Rockefeller of West Virginia would have wanted.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Don't Steal Software - The Case For Purchasing Legitimate Software in Libraries

Maybe you're reading the title of this blog entry and saying, "Libraries would never steal software!" And while that should never happen in the 21st century it still does. I have seen single copies of software passed out like candy with the reminder, "Don't try to register it." As librarians and technology guides we need to practice what we preach to our patrons, colleagues, and board members. We use software everyday that make our job easier and possible and we need legitimate and legally purchased software in our libraries and media centers.

Stay Legal - Purchase Software

So what is the number one reason to purchasing software? It keeps you legal. If you or your library is caught distributing illegal software or illegal copies of software you could face large fines, jail time, and loss of reputation in the community. If you are a public library that receives funding from your state through a library commission you could lose your funding. How would you feel if your library was on the front page of your local paper for software theft? That is a loss that no library needs.

TechSoup

I use software such as Microsoft Office, QuickBooks, and Adobe Photoshop on a regular basis in the Pioneer Library. While these software can be expensive for private companies and individuals, TechSoup makes it easy and inexpensive for nonprofit organizations to legally purchase software. It takes a little time to submit paperwork and supporting documentation of nonprofit status, but schools, libraries, and nonprofits all qualify for software donations from the manufacturers. TechSoup makes it easy to keep your library legal.

So Easy To Pirate

While it may seem easy to just pass a CD or DVD around with software, each copy needs to be registered with the manufacturer. Why? For one thing, imagine the following scenario: You are working on your library's financial records using QuickBooks. Something happens, a glitch, a bomb, the blue screen of death, a software malfunction. Maybe your computer is permanently damaged. Maybe your software has malfunctioned. What do you do? Who can you call? If you call the software manufacturer for help, they will report you for theft. You have no software support, no one to help you with your software conundrum. When you purchase legitimate software you have backup and support from the software company who wants you to have a good experience with their product. If your illegal software malfunctions you could lose invaluable data or records from your library, media center, or nonprofit.

Software Developers Deserve Their Dime

And think about it this way. Software developers spend millions to develop software that is user-friendly, reliable, and time-saving. If Microsoft Office or QuickBooks makes your professional and personal life easier, it is worth paying for. How would you feel if you wrote a book and instead of buying it someone photocopied it and read it without paying for it? You would be mad, right? It's not fair, right? Same deal with software. The federal government takes software theft very seriously as it can hurt competition and profit in the software industry.

So, the next time you feel tempted to copy software that you have not legitimately acquired and paid for, don't do it. Take time to contact TechSoup and purchase legitimate copies of software. How cheap is TechSoup? QuickBooks retails for approximately $229.95. On TechSoup the price is $30-39. If you want to purchase Photoshop Elements for your library it retails for $299. The TechSoup price for PS Elements is $22. As librarians and media professionals, we can afford to buy software legally and legitimately. We can't afford to be arrested or fined for software theft. If you represent a nonprofit that wants to register with TechSoup and need a little help, stop by the Pioneer Memorial Public Library in Harman, West Virginia, and I would be glad to get you started. Additionally, if you want to report software theft you can do so here.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Tory or Patriot? Who Was Uriah Gandy?

Perhaps one of the most unusual places in Randolph County, West Virginia is the Sinks of Gandy. Located on private property, this partially underwater cave is a favorite spot for hikers and cavers. The Sinks are named for Uriah Gandy or Gandee, an early settler of the Dry Fork region whose origins are a bit muddied by the passage of time and the decay of memory. So, who was Uriah Gandy? Read on…

Historians Remember Gandy

Gandy is listed in Hu Maxwell’s “History of Randolph County” (1898) as a former Sherriff of Randolph County who served from 1793-1796. Another source, Don Teter’s “Goin’ Up Gandy” (1977) says, “One of the early leaders of the Tory bands may have been Uriah Gandy, who settled in about 1781 near the junction of the Dry Fork with the creek which now bears his name. Apparently he abandoned his loyalty to royalty; when Randolph County was organized in 1787 he was appointed a justice of the peace, and in 1793 he became sheriff.” Working in Harman, West Virginia, there are historic signs posted that say this region was originally settled by Tories, those who supported England during the Revolutionary War. So, who was Uriah Gandy and was he a Tory?

Gandy Genealogy

According to an article in Wonderful West Virginia Magazine in December 1992, written by Lee R. Gandee, “Samuel Gandy and Uriah Gandy, Sr. were brothers, sons of George Gaither, Gendee, or Gandy, who came to Philadelphia in 1732 with his father, Hans Jacob, from Germany. He settled near Philadelphia. Samuel and Uriah joined the Patriot Army, but Samuel deserted at Valley Forge and returned home to his widowed mother and his family. He was arrested and about to be hanged as a deserter.” Allegedly, a pastor Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711-1787) wrote to General George Washington asking for clemency for Samuel Gandy, and indeed there is such a person who worked as an esteemed Lutheran minister outside Philadelphia in Trappe, Pennsylvania.

Revolutionary War Soldier?

Also according to Lee R. Gandee, “Uriah did serve in the Revolutionary War from May 1, 1776 until January 20, 1777, and again enlisted around April 12, 1777 and served until December 1777. I have found no records to indicate where he was living after December 1777 until 1784, when he was living in Rockingham County, Virginia. By then, he had probably married Susanna ___, and Uriah Jr. must have been born there September 2, 1782.”

Incomplete Revolutionary War Records

I can find no record of Samuel nor Uriah Gandy in the United States Revolutionary War Rolls (1775-1783). That does not mean that Uriah Gandy was not indeed an enlisted man in the Revolutionary War. In a book written by Henry Melchior Muhlenberg Richards entitled “The Pennsylvania-German in the Revolutionary War (1775-1783)”, v. 17, he writes, “…we are confronted with very incomplete and exceedingly meager company and regimental records as regards most of the Pennsylvania Continentals. The writer, after no little research, no slight advantages, and no ignorance, at least, of the subject, has been unable to find anywhere such data as would enable him to furnish the full account of the Pennsylvania-Germans, who formed the component parts of the several Pennsylvania Continental regiments, which he would like to give here.” My translation: Even for intelligent researchers, the records of the Revolutionary War are woefully incomplete. It seems unusual and highly unlikely that Uriah Gandy’s enlistment dates would be so specific if they were not real, and sadly I cannot find a source for Lee Gandee’s article.

Revolutionary War Pension

In digging further into the life and military service of Uriah Gandy I found his Revolutionary War pension application that was filed on November 18, 1833 in Jackson County, Virginia. So, at the alleged age of 80 and six months, Gandy applied for a pension for his service in the Revolutionary War. Gandy names the Generals under whom he served (Washington, Greene, Weedon, LaFayette, Wayne, Proctor, and Marshall) and says that his war service took him to Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New Jersey. He also claims, “I fought at Princeton & Trenton & Brandywine & Germantown. I do not recollect the No. of any Regt. Whatever & these are the General Circumstances of my Service.” Apparently, Uriah Gandee is unable to read or write and he makes a ‘G’ mark to swear his statement. There are others who vouch for the statement made by Uriah including John M. Kown and Phillips Hall, both of Jackson County, Virginia. Then, the local Justice of the Peace, George Stone, vouches for Kown, Hall, and Gandy. Then, the county clerk of Jackson County, Benjamin Wright, signs to vouch for the signature of Stone on March 17, 1834. [Side note: John M. Kown as also known as John McKown.]

After all this signing and swearing, a man named Elias Parsons, also of Jackson County, adds to the pension application, “…on the night of 25th Dec. Gandy staid at his home on his way to Ohio. That Gandy was talking about his Application for a Pension and in answer to an enquiry made by Parsons as to how long he had served as a soldier in the War of Revolution Gandy replied, “Something like Six months.” Parsons further stated that not one man who knew Gandy believed he ever served one hour as a soldier in the war of the Revolution. He is too young.”

Pension or no Pension? Reports of Uriah Gandy

Another statement reads, “Danl. G. Monell [Morrell?], Clerk of Jackson Supreme Court states on same day that Gandy applied to him to write to the Secretary of War about his pending claim for a Pension and that he did in compliance with Gandy’s request write- at the time questioning Gandy detail his services to him. From that statement he did not think him entitled. He claimed to have been engaged against the Indians for some Seven or eight months. On reference to Gandy declaration it will be seen that he locates his service in Pennsylvania & New Jersey…this declaration was made in the county before a magistrate. He is a harty man. Can walk 40 miles a day, as I am told. There can be no doubt of this claim being fraudulent. Gandy has made a new declaration from Ohio. So I am informed.” This statement is signed by a W. G. Singleton on Jany 2, 1834. [Please note that all misspellings reflect those on the document.]

Pension Denied

There is also a statement from J. J. Arnold who says, “He is very old and lives with his son since his application for a pension.” However, any and all supporting statements regarding Uriah Gandy are ultimately rejected by the US government who believes Gandy to be too young to have served. But with so many people vouching for Gandy, why was his Revolutionary War pension request denied? There was an interesting note at the bottom of the transcription added by Will Graves that says that Uriah Gandy’s “claim fits in with the meticulous research of C. Leon Harris as noted on the Revolutionary War pension application of David W. Sleeth” who was similarly rejected by attorney W. G. Singleton. In examining the lengthy claim document made by David W. Sleeth there are some unsavory details that come to light about attorney W. G. Singleton and an entity known as the “Lewis Speculating Gentry.” There were unscrupulous people and lawyers who traveled the country and enlisted older citizens to apply for and receive Revolutionary War pensions in exchange for a percentage. W. G. Singleton dubbed them the Lewis Speculating Gentry as they were headquartered in Lewis County, and they were also known as “Jonathan Wamsley’s Boys”. Think about it. In a world where there were no Social Security numbers, no electronic databases, not even photo ID, it might be easy (or difficult) to prove or disprove a pensioner applicant’s service. Enterprising lawyers need only gather a few people, fill out some paperwork and receive a percentage of a “war veteran’s” pension until their death.

Overzealous Lawyer

So, in Singleton’s favor, he did a great job of researching and finding fraud but he may have become a little too zealous with his initial success. Quoting from the research of C. Leon Harris, “Several of the pensioners’ attorneys alleged that Singleton acted “from corrupt motives” and “from no consideration but the fees the Govt. paid him” - $20 per rejected pension according to Congressman Zedekiah Kidwell.” In short, many complained about Singleton, but few had the money or resources to challenge his decision. Uriah Gandy may have had his pension rejected due to his proximity to the Lewis County Speculating Gentry. My conclusion in examining the life of Uriah Gandy is that he was not a Tory. I believe Gandy to be an honest many who was denied his Revolutionary War pension on unfounded reasons. So, when Don Teter mentions that Gandy went from “royal to loyal”, I believe Gandy was a loyal patriot and American who was left short-shrift in his golden years by an overzealous United States lawyer.

Do you love West Virginia history too? Stop by the Pioneer Memorial Public Library in Harman, West Virginia, and we would be happy to help you research history and genealogy.

Note: A special thank you to West Virginia historian David Armstrong for showing me where to find Uriah Gandy's Revolutionary War pension application online. This article is lovingly dedicated to all those denied justice at the hands of those who are supposed to mete it out.